How to Use Passato Prossimo and Imperfetto in Italian
In Italian, past events are indicated by three tenses: passato prossimo, imperfetto and passato remoto.
Passato remoto is only used in Tuscany and areas in the south of Italy.
For practical purposes, we will focus on passato prossimo and imperfetto, and how they differ from one another.
So, you already know that imperfetto and passato prossimo refer to an even in the past:
- Imperfetto expresses an action in the imperfect tense
- Passato prossimo is the present perfect tense of an action that has occurred a while ago but which has its effect on the present
Specifically, passato prossimo is used for a past event with a start and end date while imperfetto is used when talking about a past event with an undetermined start and end date.
Let’s look at examples of passato prossimo:
- Ho parlato con Maya – I spoke to Maya
- 5 anni fa sono andato in Parigi – Five years ago, I went to Paris
- Sono andato a trovare mia nonna la settimana scorsa – I visited my grandmother last week
Expressions commonly used with passato prossimo:
- ieri – yesterday
- il mese scorso – last month
- stamattina – this morning
- leri sera – last night
- l’altro giorno – the other day
Examples of passato prossimo and imperfetto
Now consider the usage of imperfetto:
- La mia prima bicicletta – My first bike was white
- Da piccolo ho avuto I capelli castani – When I was little, I had brown hair
- Mia sorella mi faceva sempre la pasta – My mother would always make pasta
In the above examples, the tense indicates a quality or feature about something or something you/someone used to do in the past.
Now, consider this example:
- Leri facevo la torta quando ha telefonato Miguel – Yesterday, I was making cake when Miguel called
Imperfetto is applicable when framing a sentence about what you were doing when something occurred.
Here’s another example:
- Leri sera ho fatto una prenotazione online mentre lui leggeva un libro – Last night, I was making a reservation online while he was reading a book
Imperfetto is also used when indicating when another event was occurring.
Additionally, note that the imperfect is used to describe: someone’s appearance or state of mind in the past; weather in the past; the introduction/scene setting when telling a story; someone’s age at a point in the past; and when suggesting the frequency of an action, such as:
- Tutti i giorni – everyday
- Sempre – always
- Continuamente – continually
- Mentre – while
Audio lessons to practice the plural form
To practice the plural form, take Lesson 104 of the Italian audio course “Ripeti con me!”.